In German, pronouns must have the same gender as the noun they replace. But remember that gender is determined not by reference to males, females, or inanimate objects but rather by the structure of the noun. Since some German masculine nouns are inanimate objects, the German masculine pronoun can mean it when referring to something inanimate, or it can mean he when referring to a male. The same thing occurs with feminine and neuter pronouns. Look at the following examples for masculine, feminine, neuter, and plural nouns and their respective pronouns.masculine noun meaning masculine pronoun meaning
der Lehrer teacher er he
der Wald forest er it
feminine noun meaning feminine pronoun meaning
die Dame lady sie she
die Zeitung newspaper sie it
neuter noun meaning neuter pronoun meaning
das Kind child es he or she
das Bild picture es it
plural noun meaning plural pronoun meaning
die Kinder children sie they
die Blumen flowers sie they
Besides the third-person pronouns that substitute for nouns (er, sie, es, and plural sie), there are also first-person, second-person informal, and second-person formal pronouns.
singular pronoun meaning plural pronoun meaning
ich I म wir we हामी/हामीहरु
du you तँ/तिमी ihr you तिमीहरु
er/sie/es he/she/it उ/उनी/यो Sie you तिनीहरु
Sie you formal तपाई/हजुर/वहाँ Sie you formal तपाईहरु/हजुरहरु/वहाँहरु
There is another third-person singular pronoun: man. This pronoun is used where English uses one or you when referring to people in general. Often man is used where the general terms people or they are said.
Hier spricht man nur Deutsch. One only speaks German here.
Man hat von dort eine gute Aussicht. You have a good view from there.
There are two important indefinite pronouns. They are jemand (someone) and niemand (no one). They are the replacements for unknown or unspecified persons.
Ich habe jemand an der Ecke gesehen. I saw someone on the corner.
Niemand kann es verstehen. No one can understand it.
You will practice several exercises on Namya's German language preparation classes. Details..